Conservation, in relation to the environment, is the act of protecting and preserving biodiversity.
Throughout Vanuatu, many natural and culturally significant areas are protected under custom law or 'taboo'.
With the assistance of the chiefs, this system proves to be a very effective way of controlling the use of resources in rural communities.
The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) continues to work closely with local communities and encourage them to protect their important resources through the use of 'taboo' as already they are very familiar with the system.
At the national level, several areas have been established and recognized by the national government as protected areas. A historical marine reserve on Santo has been established under the Fisheries Act (1982) to protect the wreck of the ship, the President Coolidge.
A Cultural Reserve has been established to provide for management of Tanna's Yasur volcano. A Kauri Reserve on Erromango was established in the 1990s under the Forestry Act (1982).
Vatthe Conservation Area in Santo was also established in the 1990s to protect the biodiversity of Big Bay forests which is the richest in the country.
A community based marine conservation called 'Ringhe te Suh' was also established in the 1990s on Maskelyne Island, Malekula.
If a community wishes to create a Conservation Area in their area, or alternatively cancel an existing one in their area already, they can apply to the DEC to help them do so
The conservation of Vanuatu Fauna and Flora, thereby its biodiversity, is both an assurance and investment.
By conserving the full variety of plants and animals we:
These are some of the things that you can do:
Community Awareness Raising - The leaders of your community (such as chiefs, church, youth and women leaders) should hold a community awareness meeting to ensure that every members of the community knows and understand the issues and status of the endangered, threatened and endemic species that are found in the community or on the island and, also, to discuss ways that the community can do to protect these species.
Place seasonal or permanent taboo - Traditional taboo is a very good way of conserving resource.
After consultation with the people, community leaders such as chiefs should place a seasonal or permanent taboo on those resources that have become endangered or threatened (including endemic species).
Management Plan for important species - Community leaders such as chiefs should also consult with their people and develop a management plan for the endangered, threatened and endangered species.
They should be able to identify those species that are highly used domestically for food and especially for commercial purposes.
In the management plan they should create simple village rules or control measures (such as the Dos and Dont's) for the sustainable use of each species.
For example, quota harvest in a week or month or year per household. Another example is, do not hunt, harvest or collect certain species during breeding season.
Respect size limits - Fisheries regulation has placed size limits on certain commercial species such as lobster, green snail, trochus, coconut crab, triton shell including some restriction on the harvest of fishes and corals and other aquarium species for export purposes.
Community leaders such as chiefs must ensure that their people observe and respect the size limits.
Research work requires a permit - Any kind of research on Vanuatu species especially those that are to be undertaken by foreign researchers, requires a permit to be issued by the DEC. As a control measure, please report to this office if you suspect any foreign researcher that you see at your place or on your island.
Beware of invasive species - Before bringing in a new live plant or an animal from another country into this country or from another island to your island, first of all find out more information about the plant or animal and secondly, check quarantine procedures on importation of plants and animals. If you are not sure, please contact the DEC for further advise.
Ensure environment considerations are included in major development projects - If your community or island engages in a major development project, ensure that EIA is undertaken and that the assessment takes into account any important plant or animal species found in the project area, and the mitigation measures to protect them.
No pollution of rivers and lakes - Community leaders should ensure that their people do not throw any form of rubbishes into a nearby river or lake.
Also, to ensure that pesticides and chemicals are not used too close to the water because this might poison and kill the plants or animal species living in and around the water source.